Harry Turner's Footnotes to Fandom
Chronological Notes - 1937-1940    | FOOTNOTES Page | Obituary Page |

Items from Fanzines & Letters + Observations.

In the 1930s, there was a plethora of amateur scientific and science-fiction appreciation societies with overlapping interests and overlapping memberships. They included:
The British Interplanetary Society (BIS), founded in Liverpool in 1933 by Philip E. Cleator and Les Johnson, the HQ was moved to London in 1936 and activities were suspended in 1939 due to WW II;
British Astronomical Association (BAA) founded in the 1890s by amateurs objecting the high fees charged by the Royal Astronomical Society;
Junior Astronomical Association (JAA) had members interested in astronomy, space travel and science fiction, they included Eric Burgess, Arthur Clarke, Marion Eadie (president & editor of Urania, the journal) and Harry Turner (who became treasurer in 1939)
Manchester Interplanetary Society (MIS) (9th June 1936-Feb 1939) the members included Eric Burgess, Stanley Davies, Trevor Cusack, Malcolm Wade, Marion Eadie and Harry Turner, and its mission was rocket research;
Manchester Astronautical Association (MAA) was formed in 1937 by Eric Burgess & Trevor Cusack as a breakaway from the MIS (E.B. saw no point in further rocket testing), members included Marion Eadie of the JAA

There were also groups of science-fiction fans based in major cities, e.g. Liverpool, Leeds, parts of London, and Manchester, who visited one another and were members of some of the above societies in addition to various branches of the Science-Fiction League (SFL) and the Science-Fiction Association (SFA). SF fans were involved in creating amateur magazines (fanzines) and/or selling material to professional magazines (prozines).

Fan gathering in Leeds, 1938, including Harry Turner
Gathering of fans in Leeds, 1938


Ted Carnell's first personal contact with fans came when he met Les Johnson and Eric Frank Russell - they came down to London and went to Ilford to meet Wally Gillings. Had contacted Les Johnson earlier: Les was Treasurer of the British Interplanetary Society, Ted was working for a printing firm in London where he soon helped to produce the BIS Journal.
   ...the Leeds fans formed an SFL Chapter [first foreign Chapter (no.17) of Science Fiction League in May 1935: Director D.W.F. Mayer] and Carnell, Gillings, and Arthur Clarke attended the first British con in 1937, from which the Science Fiction Association evolved. (Warner: All Our Yesterdays, p.84)

SFA letterhead

   ...The Leeds branch of the SFA in 1937 was enthusiastic enough to meet weekly, on Saturdays. Harry Warnes was chairman.
   ...There was a Nuneaton Branch of SFA, chaired by Maurice K. Hanson. [Originally SFL Chapter 22 in June 1935].
   ...At the end of 1937, a London Branch came into being with Eric Williams, operating a book lending library. Ken G. Chapman, Carnell, Gillings, were joined by Maurice Hanson from Nuneaton, and Arthur Clarke from Taunton. (AOY, p.159).

SCIENTIFICTION Vol. 1 No 3. June 1937 Editor Walter H. Gillings, Ilford.
Editorial: Now's Your Chance!
   "This year is one that fantasy fans will remember in time to come as commencing the British Science Fiction Era. In January there came into being an organisation which is now working to improve the lot of British fantasy fans with a keen determination in direct contrast to the lacksadaisical attitude so manifest in the past... Soon after the formation of the SFA came Scientifiction, a lone pioneer uncertain of its success, but anxious to prove its worth....
   In the realm of books ... there are interesting developments which presage great things in store. Most significant is the appearance of Wells' Star-Begotten and Stapledon's Star Maker, two fine pieces of fantastic literature such as are seldom seen in years, let alone within weeks of each other..."
   Tales of Wonder & Super-Science the first British magazine of science fiction on sale 29 June at all bookstalls and newsagents.
   Eric Frank Russell: This Comic Science is the Bunk! (see print)
   Fantasy loses Lovecraft - reports death of Howard Phillips lovecraft at age of 47.
   Messages From Space - relayed by "The Moon Man", mentions Modern Wonder, new twopenny weekly... first issue 19 May, reprinted Stowaway to Mars, John Beynon's Passing Show serial, in abridged form under the title The Space Machine. To heighten juvenile interest, the heroine Joan is turned into a boy. This is the third time Beynon's story has appeared in twelve months; was also published in book form as Planet Plane.
   The Philosopher of Fantasy: Dr Olaf Stapledon (see print).
   SFA Plans Big Things for the Future (see print)
   Reviews of Star-Maker and Star Begotten (see prints)

Members of Manchester Interplanetary society doing the Longsight Shuffle, 1937 

Members of Manchester Interplanetary society doing the Longsight Shuffle outside Harry Turner's home in Manchester in 1937.
[pictures from Michael Rosenblum's collection, animation concept by Rob Hansen.]
left to right, back row: W. Shelton, J. Broadbent, T. Cusack, front row: W. Heeley, S. Davies, E. Burgess, V. Tucker, W. Cummins, H.E. Turner

Harry Turner at his home in Victoria Park, Manchester, 1937July 1937 Headquarters of Manchester Interplanetary Society moved from Eric Burgess' home on Ashton New Road to Harry Turner's home in Victoria Park, Longsight, Manchester.
[right: H.T. outside 41 Longford Place, 1937
picture from collection of Michael Rosenblum via Peter Weston

Novae Terrae Vol. 2 No. 3 July, 1937 Edited by Maurice Hanson in Nuneaton.
Article - Albert Griffiths: Should SF have a moral?
   DRSmith:Review of Assorted Rays
   Quote of EFR letter to Literary Guide on 'Rationalism & Youth' [EFR born 1905?]
   SFA Report includes: HQ moved to 5 Florist Street, Leeds. Suggestion that second SF Conference should be promoted in London at end of year. F.W.F. Dobby welcomed to Branch. / S. Youd of Eastleigh asks for correspondents./ Ref on p.18 to disagreement in Leeds - "Mr Gottliffe & supporters ask us to state a) that new members accepted by 9 Brunswick Terrace are official members of SFA, b) that all monies will be fully accounted for and c) the expulsions of certain members are considered null and void."

SCIENTICTION Vol. 1 No. 4 August 1937
;Interview with Eric Frank Russell reveals "his intense dislike of the 'active' science fiction reader"... (see print)
   Messages from Space feature mentions Swastika Night by Murray Constantine (Gollancz 7/6d) is a nightmare fantasy of the future set in 2600AD, when Hitler is worshipped by half the world and women are just animals... JD Beresford's The Hampdenshire Wonder, and Olaf Stapledon's Last & First men available in 6d Penguin series.

Novae Terrae Vol. 2 No. 4 August-September 1937
Now edited by Maurice Hanson in London.
   Albert Griffiths on Are Fans 'Star-Begotten' / Ted Carnell Fan Gyration - a travelogue.
   Early in summer, several Leeds fans visited Liverpool fans - during one visit Harold Gottliffe took the pic of EFR now gracing the current Scientifiction. Harold later visited Mcr where he spent some time with the Manchester Interplanetary Society.
   Sept ASTOUNDING has start of EESmith's 100,000-worder Galactic Patrol which will run for six issues.
   SFA Report: I.O. Evans new member. Author of World of Tomorrow, and producer of a set of cigarette cards of same title issued by Steven Mitchell & Co. Author of article on sf in July Armchair Science. / London Branch inaugurated 3 October.

SCIENTIFICTION Vol. 1 No. 5 October 1937
Messages From Space solumn mentions When London Fell by W.J. Passingham, serialised in Passing Show: prehistoric monsters emerge from a hidden world below the metropolis.
   The Wild Goose Chase by Rex Warner is satire depicting scientific city of hermaphrodites

Frank Dobby cover for Novae Terrae, Oct. 1937Novae Terrae Vol. 2 No. 5 October 1937 MKH @ Bernard St. address. Cover by Frank Dobby.
SFA Report includes: S. Davies & H.E. Turner as new members / Announcement of attempt to form Mcr Branch at Longford Place / At inaugural meeting of London branch, Ted and Arthur elected associate eds of NT, and Wally Gillings reported as speaking for 1½ hours about his struggle for British sf mag and establishment of TOW.
   DRS Cosmic Cases No.1 - The Right of a Race to Live.
   CSYoud Fantasy v Science.
   HGWells planning lecture tour of US this autumn.
   First issue of the Fortean Magazine out in September, price 1 shilling. Either from EFR or VHJohnson.

URANIA Journal of the Junior Astronomical Association, October 1937
Arthur C. Clarke of Norfolk Square, W2, in his capacity as an officer of the BIS offered a counterblast to "The Case Against Space Travel" in the August issue.

Frank Dobby cover for Novae Terrae, Nov. 1937Novae Terrae Vol. 2 No. 6 November 1937
Cover: Frank Dobby
DWFMayer: Hot From The Press - "HGWells fourth book this year, The Camford Visitation, Methuen 2/6d, would appeal to StarBegotten idealists who revel in Wells' comments on human pigheadedness. Wells follows up his remarks on education at the Brit Assoc meeting 1937 with outspoken comments on our classical universities thru the medium of a being who has come from "beyond space & time".
   Albert Griffiths starts The Future with the classic phrase "Up from primeval slime..."
   ACC takes Sam to task in Science-Fiction v Mr Youd.

Frank Dobby cover for Novae Terrae, Dec. 1937Novae Terrae Vol. 2 No. 7 December 1937
SFA Report: First meeting of Leeds Branch in new club room on Sat Nov 20. At Sat Dec 4 meeting Griffiths spoke on Development of SF; a week later Frank Dobby spoke on Growth of Modern Art and religious, impressionist, neo-impressionist, cubist and surrealist aspects. / Third meeting of London branch on 5 Dec, 15 members and 4 visitors incl Les Johnson, VP of the BIS. Owing to pressure of work, Bill Temple relinquished chairmanship of the Amateur Author's Circle in favour of Sid Birchby. First of the branch Science Circle lectures given by ACC Astronomy & Astronautics.
   Donald A. Wollheim: What Purpose, Science-Fiction?
   DRS Cosmic Case No 2 - The Right to Colonise.
   Doug Mayer: Wake up, Fans! comments on trend for contributors to ignore sf itself, and to expound in their articles the ideas, beliefs, and inspiration that sf arouses... Perhaps some of the magnificent ideas expressed in Star-Begotten were responsible for this awakening. .... a few of our American colleagues who shared the same beliefs decided...typically... that action, not theorizing, was required... gives quote from Michel declaration at Philadelphia Convention.


Harry Turner of the MIS and Marion Eadie of the JAA were swapping back issues of their respective journals; as the MIS was mainly interested in space travel, Miss Eadie recommended the articles by Arthur Clarke as of most potential interest.

Novae Terrae Vol. 2 No. 8 January 1938
SFA Report: Listed among new members are E.S. Needham and D. Webster / Arrangements in hand for "second sf conference" in London on 10 April 1938. / Branch reports from Leeds, Los Angeles and London.
   Mr Youd Replies (to ACC's Nov crit on CSY's remarks on the science content in fantasy) with further comment from Arthur.
   DRSmith: The Drift Away from Scientific Fiction "The association of scientific fiction with the loftier ideals of sociologists is a fantasy for which we may blame the many creators of Utopias whose books have been ruthlessly conscripted to swell the scanty numbers of scientific romance."
   Donald A. Wollheim: a commentary on the Nov issue and a statement supporting Michelism.
   Ted Carnell: Review of Feb 38 Astounding, with mention of a letter from S. Youd in Brass Tacks.

Novae Terrae March 1938, cover by Harry TurnerNovae Terrae Vol. 2 No. 9 March 1938
Cover Harry Turner.
SFA Executive Report from HQ 20 Hollins Pk Rd, Leeds.
   "On 3 January 1937 the SFA came into being. It was first proposed that London area members - including most of Britain's leading fans - should assume control, but the objection was raised that there was no local group to link them, and the organising of such a group would take some time. The Executive Committee was therefore chosen from members of the Leeds group, this choice being later confirmed by the Council.
   In October 1937 the London Branch came into being... Containing four of the 7 members of the Council and 15 other members (in contrast to Leeds 9) it was natural to suggest that control of the society should pass to London. Further, the association has grown so rapidly that executive work has assumed such proportions that it cannot be carried out completely by the Leeds Branch.
   Accordingly, Mr Mayer proposed to the Council 'that the HQ of the SFA be moved from Leeds to London, the new Executive Committee consisting of Ken G. Chapman as Gen.Exec.Sec., and Eric C. Williams and Sid Birchby as Assist.Exec.Secs.' The proposal has been unanimously passed by the Council and the following are the arrangements for the change-over, which should be noted carefully. Until the day of the Convention, 10 April 1938, the society will be run as at present from Leeds. After the convention the new HQ will be 59A Tremaine Road, Anerley, London SE20... Mr Carnell will continue as Treasurer and Mr Hanson as Editor of Novae Terrae. All other Association publications - with the exception of the SF Gazette - will be issued as at present from Leeds.
   LEEDS Branch: Jan 29 DWFMayer gives lantern lecture "Can we reach the Moon?"... Feb 12 Frank Dobby elected Librarian of Branch... Visitors Ken Chapman & Maurice Hanson expected March 20th.
   LONDON Branch: Feb 13 meeting... Wally Gillings reading Lovecraft's Colour Out of Space... "His audience sat enthralled, then interested, then passive, then replete, then a little fidgety. After 1½ hours heroic reading without a stop Mr Gillings drew his story to a finish. Grunts and deep sighs sounded from about the table, of ecstasy or relief. The big moment then arrived - a programme of sf music offered by Arthur Clarke. Several faces became stonily resigned as the handle was wound, and as the first notes of Things To Come thundered out, eyes wandered to papers and magazines. And then as the maddening rhythm of Mossolov's Steel Foundry slammed and roared across the frosty air eyes became expressive once more, but alas, only with amusement and disgust..."
   Back page ad for the second convention with list of "distinguished sf personalities" who've promised to attend, etc.

Tomorrow Vol. 2 No. 1 - Spring 1938, page 7, Rocketry News:
   THE fifth issue of The Astronaut, the official journal of the Manchester Interplanetary Society, appeared at the beginning of March, it being the, first publication of the society to be issued in printed form. Its principal content was an article by P. E. Cleator, entitled "The Rocket Ban," which strongly condemned legal restrictions against practical astronautical experiments in this country. The journal will he followed by other issues at frequent intervals. In addition, the society commenced in April the publication of a small, mimeographed Bulletin.
   The society is at present considering affiliation with the British Interplanetary Society. Affiliation would enable members of either society to receive publications of both.
   The society is shortly expecting a visit from the German rocket expert, Dr. Steinitz. An article by Dr. Steinitz on rotating space-ships appeared in Armchair Science for March. Dr. Otto Steinitz. M. Esnault-Pelterie. and G. Edward Pendray were recently welcomed as Honorary Members.

Letter April 18: ref to "my visit to London last week" when Arthur mentioned the astronautical section in Urania. [Journal of the Junior Astronomical Association, edited by Marion Eadie in Glasgow]

Novae Terrae April 1938, cover by Harry TurnerNovae Terrae Vol. 2 No. 10 April 1938
Cover Harry Turner - Lunar Rescue.
Bill Temple: The British Fan in his Natural Haunt No.1 Eric C. Williams. Mainly details his book collection.
   Albert Griffiths: Religion & Science-Fiction.
   Ted Carnell: Personality Parade at the Convention. "Shortly after lunch the eight Leeds fellows arrived, followed by Harry Turner and friend Tozer from Manchester.... It was my first meeting with both Novae Terrae artists, and although I endeavoured to start a cover war similar to Brown v Wesso, I failed owing to strong friendship ties between them. Harry Turner brought some great drawings along, topping his last NT cover, but the look in Frank Dobby's glassy eye at evening's close spelt still greater pics from Leeds..."
   DRSmith: Cosmic Case No.2 - Is Humour an anti-cultural influence? Pt 2.
   SFA Report: Prof A.M. Low elected President. Convention attended by 43 delegates.
   LEEDS Branch: Meeting on March 20th when visitors were Ken Chapman & Maurice Hanson from London, and Harry Turner & Stan Davies from Manchester.
   Proposed Manchester Branch: An inaugural meeting to be held on May 22 or thereabouts.

URANIA Journal of the JAA, April 1938
An Astronautical Section officially inaugurated, the members including Eric Burgess of Manchester, Arthur Clarke of London and Edward Druker of Johannesburg.
"An Outline of Astronautics: 1. Obstacles" by A.C. Clarke.

Novae Terrae May 1938, cover by Harry TurnerNovae Terrae Vol. 2 No. 11 May 1938 Cover Harry Turner
Bill Temple: The British Fan in his Natural Haunt No.2 - Ted Carnell.
   DRSmith: Arise Fans! A reply to Albert Griffiths Ideas & Ideals.
   DRSmith: Happy Encounter.
   ACClarke: The Fantastic Muse.
   Ted Carnell: Revudenews "Best news of all is that Harry Turner has seven interior decorations to his credit... that's what comes of drawing Novae Terrae covers... (TOW 3) The readers column... with a terrfific brickbatting by Comrade Sam Youd."
   SFA Report: Tomorrow published.
   LEEDS Branch: Visit by Eric Needham on April 24. Clubroom amenities increased by radiogram.
   Manchester Branch: Inaugural meeting [22 May 1938] a great success—a veritable convention in miniature. The meeting started at 3.30pm with congratulatory message from Gen.Exec. Sec, Ken Chapman, followed by Doug Mayer talking about the evolution of the SFA and the Leeds Branch. M.K. Hanson asked for members cooperation in the SFA appeal on the question of a companion magazine for Thrilling Wonder Stories and raised a lively debate.
   When peace was restored Arthur Clarke outlined recent London SFA activities, while Les Johnson and an irrepressible Abe Bloom dwelt on the expansion of the Johnson SF Service.
   Subsequently there was a scientific argument between Messrs Clarke, Mayer and Hetherington, which rumbled on until the meeting broke up, with interruptions for refreshments, and a display of Harry Turner's artwork.
   Officials: Sec-Chairman Harry Turner; Treasurer Fred Tozer; Librarian Stan Davies.
   Local fans attending: Stan Davies, George Ellis, Philip Hetherington (then a student at Manchester University), Eric Needham, Bill Shelton, Fred Tozer and Harry Turner.
   Visiting fans attending: M. Hanson & A.C. Clarke from London; D. Mayer, V. Gillard and A. Miller from Leeds; L. Johnson & A. Bloom from Liverpool.

URANIA Journal of the JAA, May 1938
"An Outline of Astronautics: 2. The Rocket Motor" by A.C. Clarke.

Marion Eadie on visit to London in May, included meeting with A.C.C., who visited the M.I.S. later in the month.

Letter May 30: M. asks about formation of MAA.

FUTURIAN No. 1 June 1938
Report about Newnes about to publish long-projected sf mag, edited by Stanhope Sprigg, about middle of July.

June 1938 Rocket mail film shown at meeting of M.I.S.

Novae Terrae June 1938, cover by Harry TurnerNovae Terrae Vol. 2 No. 12 June 1938 Harry Turner cover Figure right, helicopter left, futuristic thorofare.
Ted Carnell: And Still They Come! Exclusive news scoop... Reveals that Newnes will, after all, be publishing an sf mag in mid-July... Astonishing Tales of SF (?) edited by T. Stanhope Sprigg. Ted told in May that no fixed publication date arranged, but that mag will appear at regular intervals.... Passing Show starts another serial by W.J. Passingham World Without Time in 25 June issue.
   Eric C. Williams: A Bit of Psychology... "I see no hope of sf ever reflecting any great change, or even the smallest change in the ways of Man while it retains its present form. If we want sf to do something, then it must go up. If we want it to become universal, it must go down. Which shall it be?"
   Reviews of two Penguins Bell's Civilisation and Sullivan's Limitations of Science (see notes).
   DRSmith: The Future.
   Bill Temple: The British Fan in his Natural Haunt No.3 Arthur C. Clarke. (Text in notes)
   SFA Report: Leeds Branch clubroom extended by addition of another room acting as office and SFA Publications Dept.... hoped to add third room as reading-room. Branch recently enjoyed a second visit from ESNeedham / John Russell Fear welcomed as new SFA member.

URANIA Journal of the JAA, June 1938
"An Outline of Astronautics: 3. Power" by A.C. Clarke.
"The Great Terrestrial Globe" — article by Marion Eadie.
Harry Turner joins JAA Astronautical Section.

July 1938 Article by Harry Turner accepted by Armchair Science. The M.I.S. distributing copies of the Breslau Astronomical Society's journal, so everyone reaching for their German dictionaries. The J.A.A. has a member in Germany, underlining the interconnection of these societies. The Germans are struggling to find funds for publication just like the societies in Britain.

URANIA Journal of the JAA, July 1938
"An Outline of Astronautics: 4. The Space Ships" by A.C. Clarke.

Novae Terrae August 1938, cover by Harry TurnerNovae Terrae Vol. 3 No. 1 August 1938
25th Anniversary Issue - 48 pages!
Cover by Harry Turner
Bill Temple: The British Fan in his Natural Haunt No 3 - Maurice Hanson (see notes)
   DWFMayer: Quo Vadis? "Almost simultaneous publication [last year] of Star Maker, Star-Begotten, and Sugar in the Air. Shortly before April, Campbell took over AstoundingSF; after nine years of sober survival under T. O'Conor Sloane Amazing Stories was taken over by the Ziff-Davis Group, and Raymond Palmer appointed editor. Then Marvel Stories appeared, and the announcement of Fantasy by Newnes... I think the time has come to ask where sf is going?"
   Eric C. Williams: Dream Talk with H.G.
   Jack Speer: Why Fandom?
   'Momus': Escapism
   Bill Temple: Celluloid Resurrection
   DRSmith: In the Grand Manner.
   Two Announcements: The first of two new features - SCRIPSI - I have written will consist of a few pages set aside for readers to argue among themselves... With this issue NT embarks on a policy of finding out things about SF.... carrying out a kind of mass-observation of the fantasy world. It will snap its fingers at Beachcomber and distribute questionnaire after questionnaire. Turn to p.19 for INVESTIGATION. (See notes).
   News Review: SFA April convention had big write-up in August Thrilling Wonder.../ Author EFRussell unexpectedly turned up in the middle of BIS meeting on Sunday 17 July, at the Duke of York's, London. His fund of (commercial) traveller's tales was as inexhaustible as ever... Artist Harry Turner was also present... Midshipman Truax, US Navy and a member of the American Rocket Society, was lecturer at the meeting. He brought along a rocket motor of his own design.... /Bill Temple's story in forthcoming TOW is called The Smile of the Sphinx. Editor Gillings thinks it may cause "a mild riot". Author Temple accordingly retiring to country. / NT cover-artist Harry Turner sent some of his drawings to Fantasy for consideration: editor Sprigg liked them and said he would probably use them if Fantasy continued...
   p.40 Council of SFA still worrying over adoption of an emblem, badges and stationery, demanding that at least 60% membership vote needed to push the matter through.
   p.42Anticipated that new branches inaugurated in L'pool & Southport within next few weeks
   p.43 Quote from Daily Worker (8 August) review of Shaw Desmond's Chaos, chosen by Howard Spring as his best book of the month. The writer regards it as "the most awful drivel, a fantastic account of war upon Britain by an unknown aggressor from another world." / Also mention of new JBPriestley novel The Doomsday Men (Heinemann 7/6d)... "fanatics intent on wiping out the human race by means of the latest discoveries of the physicists".
   p.44 Clarke & Temple throwing open their 'den' in the Flat for use as a London clubroom for all SFA members each Thursday evening... 88 Grays Inn Road, entrance a few yards below the junction of Gray's Inn Road and Theobald's Rd, towards Holborn - (look out for the sign over the door 'Foot Clinic'). Meetings informal - bring your own sandwiches, chocolate, booze etc if you wish to feed on the premises...
   Poem - Powerhouse - by Eric Needham. (See ESN file).

THE ASTRONAUT / Journal of the Manchester Interplanetary Society / Vol. 2 No. 2
August 1938. 12pp. Includes Hymn to Progress by P.E.Cleator and Story of the Rocket Aeroplane by Willy Ley (which had to be cut by half-page to fit).

URANIA Journal of the JAA, August 1938
"An Outline of Astronautics: 5. The Path of the Space Ship" by A.C. Clarke.

Letter 4 Aug: MIS in touch with Hans K. Kaiser of Breslau Astronomical Society.

Letter Aug 28: Arthur writing series The Outline of Astronautics for Urania.

Letter Aug 30: ref to second issue of Astronomische Rundschau, 16pp, with 4 pp article by Willy Ley on meteorological rockets.

Sept 5-6th: Travelled up to Glasgow with Fred Tozer, to meet MFE at Empirex. (Train due to arrive in Glasgow Central at 5.54am and returns at 11.40pm!). MFE working Sat morn, but arranges to meet us at fountain outside the Palace of Engineering.

Letter Sep 12: Note to say we arrived back in semi-comatose condition. Later letters mention that day of visit was a record Saturday - bigger crowd than the opening Saturday - there was an accident on the line that interrupted the train service from Bellahouston, hence the rush on evening trains when we were trying to get back to Glasgow. (Got two complimentary tickets for Sir James Jeans' lecture in Edinburgh on 7 October, but no hope of enticing him to Glasgow even if he is JAA Patron.
   Ref to Priestley's play I Have Been Here Before (talk of JWDunne, Ouspensky & Maeterlinck).

Novae Terrae Vol. 3 No. 2 September 1938
Maurice's editorial refers to lack of response during past year: threatens to cease publication.
   DRSmith: The Eternal Dispute (Cynical critique of sf as 'Lit')
   JFBurke: The New Cycle Needs Brakes ... 'modern' sf is nearly all trash... with more magazines, sf is going downhill... what are we coming to when people start to rave over such over-written, illogical nonsense as Galactic Patrol ?
   Frank Edward Arnold: Humour in SF
   Gottliffe poem: On a Section of Crazy Paving, uncovered by excavators in 5000AD.
   Bill Temple: The British Fan in his Natural Haunt No.5 - Ken G. Chapman.
   D.McIlwain: Rationalism Simply Explained. (Later reprinted in Sally).
   Review of JBS Haldane's The Inequality of Man (Pelican)
   News Review: DWFMayer has two articles accepted by Discovery, one by Scientific American, and the Daily Worker.
   JB Priestley's time play, I Have Been Here Before, to be broadcast Sat 8 October.
   Serial running in Good Housekeeping - The Hopkins Manuscript by RC Sherriff - is supposedly written in the ruins of Notting Hill in 1952 after the moon has crashed into the Earth and only 700 people are left alive in London. It features the British Lunar society, which from the details, appears to be a take-off of the BIS...
   SFA Branch Reports: Welcome guests at Leeds clubroom at 7pm Sunday 21 August, for the inaugural meeting of the Winter session, were Harry Turner, ESN and George Ellis, who had spent the afternoon browsing round the Branch's library, discussing sf, and posing for photographs. Chairman Mayer opened the meeting, Harry Turner recounted the activities of the Manchester Branch, and his own activities as an artist. A film show followed: The Oil Magnate, a Snub Pollard comedy full of Heath Robinson inventions, followed by The Secret of the Loch, featuring Seymour Hicks, in which the Loch Ness monster resembled an overgrown lizard.
   Manchester Branch: Meeting on Aug 28 included debate on the NT investigation. Reading of old classic, Gail's Shot Into Infinity, eventually had readers departing in search of throat pastilles to ease over-worked vocal chords. At next meeting on Sep 11 attention concentrated on latest sf, with occasional distracting snores from Harry Turner recovering from an all-night railway journey.
   London Branch: Meeting at AOD 18 Sep attended by Les Johnson, L'pool's Prize Pessimist. Showing of Metropolis, ACC in charge of projector, MKH and WFT managing musical accompaniment. Two mishaps: Maurice & Bill ran out of "hurry" music during the prolonged chase scenes - and had villainous inventor chasing heroine to Dead March. In confusion, Temple put reel 5 on gramophone and Basin St Blues in projector. Film ended successfully with nicely-timed Things to Come epilogue and was applauded wildly. Anniversary meeting to be held 23 Oct at 3,30pm.
   SFA Exec. Committee report: Congrats to LA Branch on anniversary issue of Imagination, and to L'pool Branch on first issue of Satellite. / Acknowledgement to MIS for The Astronaut and Astronomische Rundschau / The ballot for SFA emblem was poorly supported...

FUTURIAN No. 2 September 1938
John Russell Fearn complains about editors' restrictions responsible for mediocrity of British sf in magazines. Says don't blame the authors - blame the policy that prevents them using their ideas. (See notes).
   Ted Carnell resigned as Publicity Director of the BIS.
   Additions to library include: Capek's Absolute at Large, Phillpots Saurus, W.D.Hubbard's The Thousandth Frog, and Shaw Desmond's Chaos and Ragnarok.
   Pohl organises SF Poet's Guild, membership of 12; William S. Sykora labels dozens of leading fans as "stooges of Donald A Wollheim", and carries out a one-man onslaught to drive Michel, Wollheim and Pohl out of sf... Secretary of the Loyal & Benevolent Protective Order of Wollheim Stooges, J.B. Michel states that the group is open to all fans who have ever had occasion to differ with William S. Sykora... New Fandom is sponsored by Sykora and Sam Moskowitz.

URANIA Journal of the JAA, September 1938
"The Rocket and Astronomy" — article by Eric Burgess.

Letter Sep 22: Starting on illos for TOW 5. In No.4 Bill Temple has The Smile of the Sphinx in which Arthur meets with a very sticky finish. Missed hearing JBS Haldane at Manchester on Tuesday; arrived late and place crammed to capacity. Hope to return to Glasgow on Sat Oct 15.

SATELLITE Vol. 1 No. 1 October 1938 (Hekto) Edited by John Burke & Dave McIlwain.
Official organ of L'pool SFA: f'cap folded in half, 24 pages.
   Contains Sam Youd's Dreamer / Dave McIlwain's Rationalist Viewpoint reprinted from NT / Stop Press items include King Kong and Frankenstein going the rounds... Time & the Conways opens L'pool Playhouse in October, and companion play I Have Been Here Before broadcast by BBC on Sat 8 October...

URANIA Journal of the JAA, October 1938
"Novae Terrae" — article by Harry Turner.
"The Rocket and Astronomy (II)" — article by Eric Burgess.
Debates And Discussions Corner : Harry Turner accuses light of deceiving us.

Letter 3 October: Ref to Doug Mayer having an article No More Bombs in the Daily Worker, and the Manchester SFA branch visiting London on 22nd October.

Letter 17 Oct: Back home after Glasgow visit to M.F.E. and 2nd visit to Empire Exhibition... train an hour late and greeted by torrential downpour. Found postcard awaiting me from Maurice asking me to rush through cover for NT, typescripts from Wally for TOW illos, and a note from Ken Chapman asking me to speak at next Sunday's SFA meeting! Probably fall back on red shifts in nebular spectra and possible inconstancy of speed of light. / see letter Nov 20 re Hubble stating that results seem to favour concept of a stationary universe. / Also letters in Nature on light speed decrease theory in December.
   Invite Marion over in New Year.

Glasgow air defences testing searchlights and guns...

End of October: H.E.T. in London, first visit to The Flat @ 88 Gray's Inn Road.

Letter 3 Nov: London trip went off well: privileged to give the Grays Inn Rd flat the once-over... Together with Eric and George, escorted there by Maurice to find the inmates churning out the latest BIS Bulletin. Vast flights of stairs to be negotiated.
   Mention that M/cr club library regularly gets copies of Scientific American, Pop Mechanics, Mechanix Illustrated, Mechanics & Handicraft, & Science & Mechanics, plus Armchair Science.
   Doing stencil for MIS Bulletin.

Letter Nov 20: Saw the eclipse when totality was near on bus on way home from evening classes. Top of bus empty so I was able toscurry to various vantage points as the bus travelled round corners. Conductor came up several times during this performance and seemed puzzled at finding me in a different seat each time... Cleator is upsetting Arthur with his comments on Bulletins in latest issue of Tomorrow.

SATELLITE Vol. 1 No. 2 November 1938 (Hekto - 24pp - 3½d.)
Leslie J. Johnson: All is Dust ! "I despair of mankind..."

Novae Terrae November 1938, cover by Harry TurnerNovae Terrae Vol. 3 No. 3 November 1938 Cover by Harry Turner & ACC 'The Conquest of Space' [Done on a visit - check with Midnight series].
SCRIPSI........ From a Proof-Reader - Eric S. Needham, Manchester. "This latest NT is a great improvement on all previous ones, and I can only find three spelling mistakes, five misprints, two over-spacings and one rare case of missed inverted comma. But on page 11 there are eight dots after Scripsi and on page 17 there are 10. Whose fault is this?"
   Bill Temple: The British Fan in his Natural Haunt No.6 - Walter H. Gillings.
   Comment on the Panic: The War of the Worlds radio broadcast... [see xerox]
   Topical items about HG Wells: This Man is News [see xerox]
   It's in the Library: mentions Tomorrow's Yesterday by John Gloag, the story of a film production that features two Time travellers surveying our world and its history. (I recall that I was intrigued by the explotation of typographical facilities). And also The Absolute at Large by Karel Capek in which "somebody releases atomic energy and in the same procedure the God residing in matter. The result: a religious uprising whenever the atomic motors are in operation. War, death, and almost final extinction of the human race bring this satire to a smashing conclusion".
   Ted Carnell: Advance review of Startling Stories (first issue) with Weinbaum's The Black Flame.
   SFA Branch reports: London - Fans from outlying parts came to swell large attendance at Anniversary Meeting held at the AOD, Lamb's Conduit Street, Sunday 23 October including Doug Mayer & Vic Gillard from Leeds, Harry Turner, ESN & George Ellis from Mcr..." [for details see xerox.] Harry Turner spoke on Expanding Universe., also comment by Ted on me and Wally in art debate on next TOW...
   New members include "R.E. Vincent, of Mcr."
   News Review mentions Ernest Gabrielson as sponsor of L'pool SFA Branch meetings - The Viador Fellowship - from Oct 21.../ SPACEWAYS is the name of new mag out on Nov 1 (HWJr?) / Ralph Richardson [The Boss of Things to Come] took leading roll in broadcast of JB Priestley's play I Have Been Here Before ... [Refer to book with paste-up of TTC serial from MEN]

URANIA Journal of the JAA, November 1938
"An Outline of Astronautics: 6. More Orbits" by A.C. Clarke.
"A Visit To Stonyhurst College Observatory" — article by Eric Burgess.

Letter 4 December: "While TOW still continues to demand 'adaptable' drawings, it was pleasant news to hear from Stanhope Sprigg that he wants me to do some illustrations for the second issue of Fantasy, due out early next year..." / Volunteer to help out as JAA Treasurer.

M's LTR 5 Dec: comments on NT items incl. ACC in Natural Haunt...

Novae Terrae December 1938, cover by Harry TurnerNovae Terrae Vol. 3 No. 4 December 1938 Cover Harry Turner
John Burke: Art & Science Fiction
   Eric C. Williams: Idle Chatter in the Vaults (Future researchers in British museum vaults blow the dust off the files of NT)
   Frank Arnold: England in American Fantasy
   Dave McIlwain: Knowledge Test (Spoof quiz)
   THIRTEEN FANS: Sid Birchby, Ken Chapman, Philip Hetherington, H. Lennox, Alec Miller, Dave McIlwain, Doug Mayer, Eric Needham, EF Parker, Mike Rosenblum, DR Smith, Jack Speer, Doug Webster - out of 200 readers - answered the Questionnaire. Summary of views expressed concludes with comment: "These then are the facts that fandom has generously given to the world, facts to be handed down to posterity in awestruck admiration. Those who are sufficiently interested will be able to draw their own conclusions."
   SFA Exec. Comm. Report: New members include W.J. Passingham, E.L. Gabrielson, Ron Holmes and N. Weedall.
   Acknowledgements include MIS Bulletin and Astronomische Rundschau.
   Leeds Branch: Sun Nov17 GoHs were Arthur, Bill, Maurice and Eric Williams.
   NEWS Review: All Wells' books banned in Franco's Spain... rumour going round Hollywood that Charlie Chaplin has asked HGWells to write the script of his new film "about a bewildered little Jew who is mistaken for a dictator to whom he bears a likeness..."

SATELLITE Vol. 1 No. 3 December 1938
MOONSHINE [Readers' Letters]: From Sam Youd - "I had thought the days of spreading the gospel to the ignorant masses were gone, but there seem to be a few sparks left. (Reference to Wilson's call to 'Action' promoting sf). I had already read All is Dust!, but read it again and found it interesting, if unoriginal. If Les wants to know what the world does to idealists I would refer him to Begbie's Black Rent (Part 2, chapter 7)."Round & About: Lot of rumours flying around about Fantasy - definite information that it will not be out again next month... more information that it isn't coming out at all... come on, Mr Sprigg...
   Promise that next issue will be duplicated in a large size, new 12-page format. With a frank criticism of Mr Walter Gillings' policy with Tales of Wonder...

URANIA Journal of the JAA, December 1938
"An Outline of Astronautics: 7. Some Fuels" by A.C. Clarke.
Debates And Discussions Corner : Douglas Webster liked H.T.'s suggestion in the previous issue, Edgar Blyth didn't.

Letter from M 12 Dec: Setback to Manchester visit as no cheap excursions from Glasgow.

Letter Dec 18: - ref to Churchward books.
Committee proposed winding up M.I.S. by end of year and continuing as a B.I.S. group - running the M.I.S. taking up too much of their spare time and not enough funds to continue Journal... Decision to be taken at Jan. AGM.

Letter Dec 30: Discovered Glasgow trips resumed from Manchester

Telegrams Dec 31 2.14pm Sunday 8 will suit - Marion
   3.18pm Just discovered no Sunday excursions. Writing

Letter Dec 31: Expect you'll be surprised at being deluged with wires from me today, but the Info Bureau tell me the only trip is Friday January 13


January H.E.T. visit to Glasgow in first week of month to see M.F.E. H.T. now treasurer of the J.A.A. and earning enough from his commercial art for SF magazines to be able to design and purchase new notepaper for the J.A.A.
Cleveland Rocket Society extinct, M.I.S. facing same fate...

Letter 29 January: TOW decided on a change of plan at last minute which meant that I had to do several additional drawings. Then Sprigg came along (also at the last minute) asking for some illustrations for an article by Willy Ley... entitled Terminal in Space and dealing with the space station... [Published in FANTASY Thrilling Science Fiction Vol. 1, No. 2, CLICK HERE to see the illo. PHT] Eric Burgess discussing an Astronautical Conference with H.E.T. and others, hopes to involve the B.I.S.

Novae Terrae January 1939, cover by Harry TurnerNovae Terrae Vol. 3 No. 5 - January 1939 LAST ISSUE ! Cover Harry Turner.
Maurice K. Hanson: FINIS..... This is last issue of NT. It will be followed in February by NEW WORLDS, a magazine that will be its successor as monthly organ of the SFA. Ted Carnell will be editor and the magazine will be mimeographed on quarto paper... [See notes for rest of Maurice's "farewell"]
   Arthur C. Clarke: The British Fan No.7 - William F. Temple
   News Review: Karel Capek, famous author of RUR and other sf stories, has died of pneumonia.
   SFA Branch reports: London - Xmas supper at AOD Hall, W.J. Passingham, John Beynon Harris and Bert Lewis present. Film show - The Secret of the Loch/White Hell of Pitz Palu. Ted Carnell spoke on new fan mag New Worlds; Passingham, author of widely read Passing Show sf serials, appealed for more humanity in sf; Hal Chibbett, spook-hunter of 'The Probe' thrilled with seasonable ghost tales - from experience. / Leeds Branch had its own Walpurgis Night on 4 Dec. Metropolis shown at AGM on Jan 8th. Visited Things to Come revival and pressured local cinema manager for High Treason, F.P.1, Just Imagine, The Tunnel, and Lost Horizon.

SATELLITE Vol. 2 No.1 January 1939 (Duplicated quarto, 12pp, 3½d post free)
Part 1 of Citadel of Dreams by Dave McIlwain, to be continued by Frank Wilson, Sam Youd, and John Burke).
   Les Johnson: Whither Tales of Wonder? "The publication of Fantasy shed temporary light in persistent gloom, only to return comet-like into the emptiness whence it came. Now, again, we have only Tales of Wonder... the sole merit of TOW No.1 was that it was TOW No.1... first professional British sf magazine. In connexion with the illustrations it is known for a fact that if the publishers had their way there would most likely be only one art effort: the cover! It is only with superhuman efforts that the hardworked editor contrives to have Turner's drawings included, and even then he is compelled to use each of them twice - or none at all in the subsequent issue.
   C.S.Youd: Each in his own tongue (poem)
   Round & About: Maurice Hanson gives up Novae Terrae to Ted Carnell, who plans a magazine that will shake up the fans a bit... first issue is due about February, with a cover by Harry Turner, fiction by well-known authors, and brand-new, up-to-date features,
   SFA Branch report: Ted Carnell paid a visit Sunday December 6th... Ken Chapman due December 11...

URANIA Journal of the JAA, January 1939
"An Outline of Astronautics: 8. Dangers" by A.C. Clarke.
Debates And Discussions Corner : Harry Turner replies to Edgar Blyth's comments in the previous issue.
Marion Eadie with a question about a great meteor crater found in the Rub' al Khali Desert of southern Arabia.

Letter 1 February: Despite rumours that TOW is not selling so well, Wally says that Worlds Work are talking about making it a monthly publication... Sprigg is also hinting that Fantasy may become a regular publication.
H.E.T. surprised to learn that Eric Burgess is getting the credit for designing the B.I.S space-ship:

"Sorry if I have to bring Mr. Burgess to your notice once more ! Apparently having digested my letter, he's lost no time in taking advantage of the parent Society's sad decease; such unfilial conduct ! According to the attached cutting Mr. Burgess was the man who designed the B.I.S. space-ship - - - I wonder why the B.I.S. have kept it hushed up for so long. Probably Arthur can supply the answer !
   I was rather surprised to see that there are only 25 members in the Society. Two years subscription at 5/- per annum from 25 members equals £12/10/- so they should be able to make good their threat to publish a journal ! However, the cutting speaks for itself - - - I shall refrain from further comment, except just observing that if Designer Burgess were as well up in technical matters as he is in matters of publicity he'd be a marvel !

M.I.S. notes with indignation that Weltraum has published "The Histgory of the Rocket Airplane" from the August 1938 issue of Astronaut without acknowledgement...

SATELLITE Vol. 2 No. 2 February 1939 (Break with SFA?)

Letter 2 March: H.T. reports to M.E. that the M.I.S. was wound up in the last week of February. He also offers the latest on E.B.'s plans for an Astronautical Convention. E.B. is not getting much support but he would like someone else to organize the first one in London and invite him to be the big noise at it. He is also keen for a Scottish Astronautical Convention to be held in Glasgow on the same terms.

Letter 18 March: the latest issue of Benachrichtigung der Gesellschaft für Weltraumforschung includes the news that: "Unter den neuen Mitgliedern befinden sich einige namhafter Fachleute auf dem Gebiet der Raketentechnik, wie Prof. Hermann Oberth, Mediasch, DR.-Ing. W. Hohmann, Essen, Ing. H. Schaefer, Long Island, H.E. Turner, Manchester....". [Among the new members are several renowned experts in the area of the rocketry, such as Prof. Hermann Oberth, Mediasch, DR.-Ing. W. Hohmann, Essen, Ing. H. Schaefer, Long Island, H.E. Turner, Manchester....]

SATELLITE Vol. 2 No. 3 (Whole No.6) March 1939
Maurice Hanson: The Science-Fiction Religion
   C.S. Youd: Citadel of Dreams Pt 3
   William F. Temple: Museum Meander.
   Fantacynic: At the Bottom of my Garden.

Letter 2 April: I've just heard from someone who joined first form at Ducie Avenue Central School the year I left, and who has succumbed to propaganda I used to pass on to the English master there, Mr Mundy, about rocketry and sf. He wants to come and see me soon... He's Ron Lane, 22 Beresford Road. Longsight. Seems to have received a copy of FIDO, with the Zenith sheet, though Mike's not got around to sending me a copy yet!

SATELLITE Vol. 2 No.4 (7) April 1939 - JFB editor/ DMcI Art Ed. 2½d post free.
   John F. Burke: Citadel of Dreams Conclusion.
   E.L.Gabrielson: LEMMEGETATEM Reply to critics of his astrology article.
   Fantacynic: At the Bottom of my Garden includes parable Sic it always transits, about Blugson & Flannel who ran the B-G Service..... (Mebbe the Carnell & Chapman SF Service?)

THE FANTAST Vol. 1 No. 1 April 1939 Ed C.S. Youd 3½d or 1/6d 6 months post free.
Cover by Osmond Robb, illustrating Clarke's Twilight of a Sun'
   Dave McIlwain story The Parson & the Fairy.
   John F. Burke: How to be Famous. "Save up and buy a typewriter and a few reams of paper and get busy writing stories. Write all you can, then sketch out a couple of plots and drop them on the rest. Then commit suicide. Your stories, hitherto neglected, will be bought for stupendous sums by editors and printed after months of ballyhoo in the editorial columns... Thus... Lovecraft was to my mind the peer of fantasy authors; yet when I see a Lovecraft story in Weird Tales these days I feel disgusted... Stories that Lovecraft never submitted, or were rejected when he was alive, have suddenly been rooted out and printed, regardless of merit... Weinbaum comes in for it even more than Lovecraft. It is time that someone exploded the theory that Weinbaum was a genius... After his death, what happened? Numerous drafts were unearthed. Ralph Milne Farley was good enough to help them... Now if you'll excuse me I'll just go off and buy some potassium cyanide... All my rejected mss are in the bottom of my bureau, Mr Campbell.
   C.S. Youd: Poem Dreamer 3.
   Harriett Hawkins story No Grave!
    The Clarke Archive copy also has a sheet of pages 1/2, which were rejected after stencilling by the editor, with a piece Fandom Debunked by 'SUMUS'...
   ...with me scrutinise this Fandom, this conglomeration of perverts herded and fed by the egotistical few... Fandom is growing old, but young fresh blood is surging forward to keep alive the Land of the Fantasts; young, fresh blood that cannot perform its beneficial function because of the senile and decrepit specimens who still infect the Higher Places, frantically holding on to their aura of faded glory... The Top Liners!
   The writer then proceeds to slug Wollheim and his pseudocommunist party no way relevant to fantasy flooding fanmags with infantile propaganda; 4SJ Ackerman, with Ackermanese and Esperanto; Tucker and the dubious fame of the 'staple war'...
   We are not obliged to pander to the egoisms of the Tucker not the Wolheim, the Ackerman, the Michel, the Carnell, the Johnson, the Mayer, the Lowndes, the Moskowitz, but I could go on indefinitely recording the names of those who have made Fandom the unhappy, unstable mess it is.
   Is the Carnell really catering to the fans... is the Johnson really running his 'Service' to help and assist fans and collectors, or is he merely using the SFA to make money? Is the Mayer publishing TOMORROW to edify fans or appease his vanity and lust for publicity? {Note that this is not written by John Burke].

16 May: I'm paying the Metropolis a visit this weekend to attend the SFA convention.

SATELLITE Vol. 2 No. 5 May 1939 - Last independent issue. JFB Ed.
Editorial: From the next issue we shall come out under the wing of the SFA, monthly in place of the celebrated New Worlds, which will henceforth be a quarterly...
   R. Holmes: The Complete SF Fan (Mentions J. Burke, a clarinet blower).
   MOONSHINE: Letter from DRSmith - Mr Gabrielson & his critics have very definite ideas about something, but I can't find out what. His original article seemed to be suggesting that astronomers might not be correct in all their theories and ideas, a fact obvious to everyone.
    In his last sentence he concluded inconsequentially that astronomy was a mythology, and in his reply to his critics goes farther and wants to prove a case for Astrology being a science. Now from all this, and especially his original article, I concluded that no one could prove anything to Mr Gabrielson scientifically because he would not argue as a scientist from the point of view of rigid facts, but as a mystic, from a conviction that what he thinks is right. /
   Letter from Robert A Madle - I believe your cover illustrations could be improved upon. Why not contact Turner? He seems to be the best fan artist you have over your side of the Pond.
   Advert: FANTAST - the new fan-mag for all fantasy lovers! A FANTASY REFORM PUBLICATION.

Letter 18 May: I expect you've heard from John Gabrielson by now. He had a short story in the February Satellite... I recently sent him a copy of Urania via John Burke asking if he'd like to air his views in 'Debates & Discussions'. He'll shortly have an article in Satellite stating the case for astrology as a science. I hope to reply to this.

THE FANTAST Vol.1 No. 2 May 1939 Ed C.S. Youd
Fantacynic: Fanopolis [The Neophyte is taken to the Council, as a new arrival. Meets three people - the one with big feet calls himself the Fantaspoet, the one with clarinet is John F. Barke, and the one with the piano is MacInpain; the Fantasy Reform Publications Assortment.

Letter 6 June: ...was disappointed with Gabrielson's bit in D&D; expected something a littlemore definite on the lines of that first article in Sally. I'll send a copy on later of his article in the latest issue. I've done a reply... Arthur said that he was also tearing friend G apart.

SATELLITE Vol. 2 No. 7 July 1939 Ed John Burke 14pp 3½d
Cover The Milky Way by Harry Turner
   Dave McIlwain: A Michelist on Mars
   Eric C. Williams: Egos & the SFA "Maurice Hanson... used to come up and tell me that my article was voted the best in the issue, and that by general vote it appeared that I was the most popular writer on his staff. He would then ask for another article. It nearly always worked."
   Frank Edward Arnold: To Hell with all this! "...the sort of chatter... circulating around sf... and which you and I and other men of good will are thoroughly fed up with, and which we mean to put a stop to..."
   Arthur Clarke: Why waste half the issue on this insane astrology business?
   [Next month Harry Turner will be featured with a complete (he thinks) reply to Mr G]

THE FANTAST Vol. 1 No. 4 July 1939 Cover Harry Turner: Robot of Civilisation
Fantast July 1939- cover by Harry TurnerFantacynic: Fanopolis - 3 [The Neophyte meets Uncle Hugo (Gernsback), founder of Fanopolis. Reference to Bill Pimple, Ego Narke and Boris Pantson living in a state of Flatness. They hold Music Nights and listen avidly to stuff such as that Russian guy's Steel Foundry. Barke & MacInPain hold a rival jazz night and let fly with Venuti and PeeWee Russell, while D.R. Black and Fantaspoet, annoyed at such specialisation, form a third Music Night to enjoy everything from Beethoven to Bing Crosby. Unfortunately they all chose the same night.
   {Apparently I criticised Robb's covers in issue 3; according to Maurice Hanson letter, I also sat on Cameron 'Answers to Correspondents']

Letter printed in Manchester Evening New, 22nd July :
In His Own Hands

   If your correspondent "Believer" wishes to see peace on earth he must needs adopt a more practical policy than that he recommends.
   Whether the series of crises we are suffering will end in war or peace is dependent on man.
   And if there are many persons like "Believer", who are content merely to pray for peace, I am not too optimistic about our immediate future. What we need are people who are willing to work for peace.
   H. E. Turner, Victoria Park.

SATELLITE Vol. 2 No. 8 August 1939
Luis Kuslan: New York SF Convention.
   C.S. Youd: And the same to You! A reply to AEArnold sounding-off in last issue. His "article is directed against a certain group of people with the intention of gaining the support of the Society to bind them into impotence. During the early part of this year, I and others made so bold as to criticise the need for and value of the SFA. Before the convention, however, we made our peace with HQ officials and, in most cases, added the necessary apologies. Feeling utterly mellow & Christian we went like lambs to the Convention slaughter where the soap-box oratory of Mr Arnold depicted us as Duquesnes of the worst type..... I claim the right of all men to criticise anything they believe to be wrong.... You are behind the times, Mr Arnold. The days when fans could influence the policy of magazines are gone... the SFA has no influence with editors, and never will have! (more detailed text in notes).
   Eric S. Needham Variation on an Ancient Theme. (poem)
   Harry Turner: Astrology - the Pseudo-Science. [Very sercon!]
   Fantacynic: At the Bottom of my Grave-yard. Back by popular request.

THE FANTAST Vol.1 No. 5 August 1939
Cover Harry Turner - Thinker with dinosaurs at foot and spires of Tomorrow's City behind [Wow, stuffy, man]
   Dave McIlwain: Last & Worst Men
   Eric Hopkins: Machines, Men & Methods Reply to Rathbone.
   Maurice Hanson: Just Like a Science Fiction Story MKH returns to Science Wonder Stories he read five years ago (published 1929-1930) and is surprised at "the frequency with which the authors explained their heroes' predicaments by suggesting that they were in a science fiction story"; quotes Miles J. Breuer, Dr Keller and Francis Flagg. By using the trick of literary infinite regress, the authors added a specious conviction to their stories.
   James Rathbone: Langwidge.
   Fantacynic: Fanopolis - 4 Mention of Pie-can Rose-in-bloom, generally known as Pike, nearly banished from Fanopolis for a battle with Grizzly Bayer.
   R.W. Tucker: So This Is England? or Pong Prefers Patagonia.
   Fantast's Folly: Doc Lowndes compliments cover. Letter from Gunner Hanson... Mike Rosenblum also praises cover. So did DRS though he ses he doesn't see the connection with the title.

URANIA Journal of the JAA, August 1939
Arthur Clarke torpedoes the suggestion that the BIS is contemplating co-operating with the Air Ministry and states that the Technical Committee is not interested in rocket-propelled aircraft.

THE FANTAST Vol. 1 No. 6 September 1939
Kenneth Mackley: No Visitors [story]
   John B. Michel: Monday Morning over the World. (Poem) [See Notes}.
   DRSmith: It's A Devil (Story)
   John F. Burke: Conversation in a Space-Ship (Moral tale with a dig at Harry Kay - whose comments on patriotism in an earlier issue upset the readers...)
   Fantacynic: Fanopolis - 5 "Barke looked thoughtful, a favourite habit of his since it threw his Gibraltar chin into splendid relief. Fantaspoet also endeavoured to look thoughtful, but succeeded only in appearing owlish".
   Editorial "adds to the votes of censure passed on Moskowitz et al., for their ban on Michelists at the recent "World" SF Convention."
   Fantast's Folly: DRS "The cover was really fine, a very well executed portrayal of the idea of fantasy. It fills one with wild yearnings to rush off and read, or try to read, all the great scientific fantasies at once. In giving ten to this I realise the limits of the marking system, it is, without disparaging anything else in the magazine, entirely in a class by itself.I wish I could write with the same inspiration that Turner draws! ....
   Hanson's comments on the old Science were interesting, particularly as they help to determine the secret of the atmosphere that accompanies the stories of the early age of magazine science fiction. It was the Gernsback sugar-coated science idea that did it, combined with the naivete that Hanson points out. I sometimes wonder if there is not something valuable in the Gernsback idea, well-used of course. At least it held the authors down to realism in part.
   The trick of infinite regress, as Hanson neatly terms it, was another good trick, though over-used. His article recalls happy memories..." / JFB: "Cover: This is really grand, although the space-ships and whatnots are so faint that there seems to be rather a big gap between the man and the title [Where in blackout did the celestial city disappear to, then? Ed] Expecting Fay to be an arty mag as we did the first three covers were bad let-downs...
   Fanopolis: The cracks about Mike are the best things in this episode... Work in such things as Les Johnson thinking up "ideas" for stories he knows will sell right away because they're works of genius but never having the time to write them; Bill Temple playing de Falla's Fire Dance, a Bach Toccata & Fugue, and then following with the Andrews Sisters' Hold Tight..." / Cover got kind remarks from Osmond Robb.

URANIA Journal of the JAA, September 1939
Debates And Discussions Corner : Harry Turner on "The Origin of the Solar System".

Fantast Oct-Nov 1939 - cover by Harry TurnerTHE FANTAST Vol. 1 No. 7 October-November 1939
Cover Harry Turner - Khayyam quote
   DRSmith: The Benefactor (Story)
   Eric C. Williams: Extracts from a Journal
   Robert W. Lowndes: Necronomolgy
   DRSmith: Heart Failure (Story)
   Phil Hetherington, B.Sc.(Manc).:Creed of a Tory Confesses to being a Royalist, imperialist, wants a Federal europe at the end of the war, supported Munich, supported conscription, convinced that religion is a necessity for man, and that there is an element of truth in astrology...
   Letters: Doug Webster prefers "Turner to Gottliffe - in fact to most other cover coppers".

SATELLITE Vol. 2 No. 9 (12) November 1939 John F. Burke Ed
Headings DMcIlwain / Sundry crude jokes etc by ESNeedham in the main: like - What is the difference between a slice of bacon and the BIS space-ship? The spaceship is a rash project, but the bacon is a rasher...
   Editorial: This is last issue under the SFA, as that body is now relapsing into a coma while the war is on, probably to be revived later, when hostilities end... For a time we contemplated giving the magazine up altogether, but as Sally was just about paying her way when the SFA took over, we feel that we can carry on if our old readers will back us up.
   Bill Temple: Three Men in a Ship and Three Men in a Ship (being synopsis of a story which the author will write in full if any editor will pay him enough).
   Ted Carnell: SFA means Suspended For Awhile. (Outbreak of war means SFA suspends activities...)
   Bert Lewis: In defence of Weird Fiction.
   L.V. Heald: Playground of the Stars (Impressions of a L'pool SFA branch meeting)
   MOONSHINE: WP Cockcroft of Halifax - "I must congratulate Mr Turner on his article concerning astrology..."
   Eric S. Needham: Variation on an Ancient Theme No.2 (poem)

URANIA Journal of the JAA, November 1939
"Orion the Hunter" — article by Harry Turner.
"Astronomy And Astronautics" — a clarification by A.C. Clarke.


Letter 28 January: Doug Mayer's article in Dec Scientific American entitled 'Is light slowing down?'... Ted Carnell says he has just accepted editorship of a new monthly sf mag - publishers, title & date of issue all very secret - and stories of "the new, well-written modern variety" are being purchased at 2 per thousand words...

SATELLITE Vol. 3 No. 2 (14) January 1940
Harry T. Kay: On Criticism - clobbers the "Youd-Nazis" for belittling John Russell Fearn...
   DRSmith: How To Enjoy "Pulp Magazine" Science Fiction. [Ironical
   MOONSHINE: Eris Hopkins comments on Nov ish "WPCockcroft endorses Harry Turner's condemnation of 'religion', and if by this somewhat ill-defined word he means the worshipping in churches of an apparently most indifferent deity, and its accompanying primitive beliefs in Original Sin, Flaming hell, etc, I must confess that his attitude seems well-founded in clear-thinking and parallels both in civilisation and savagery - BUT, if he is decrying the Bible, I must register an indignant protest.
   To whatever depths the self-appointed servants of God may have dragged the fine thought of the Bible with their cruel persecutions, petty squabbles, and frittering of faithful people's money upon useless edifices, the very great fact remains that even if the Bible is a legend unfounded in fact, and I'm open to conviction either way [We recommend 'The Age of Reason', available at 1/- in the Thinkers Library, by Thomas Paine] iy contains some of the grandest poetry written, and is unequalled in its magnificence and scope of thought, and depth of vision."/
   Sam Youd mentions a "few gems of sf" which include Wandrei's Colossus, Stuart's The Machine, Lovecraft's At the Mountains of Madness, Shadow Out of Time... From Wonder Time Stream and The Final War...

Satellite Feb 1940 - cover by Harry TurnerSATELLITE Vol. 3 No. 3 (15) February 1940
Cover by Harry Turner - leucothea
   DRSmith: SCIENCE-FICTION 1939 "As I regard the pile of 1939 magazines I have accumulated to date I feel truly thankful that I have bought most of them as remainders, for otherwise the money I had thrown away would cause my parsimonious soul much misery."
   Eric C. Hopkins: The Fan in his Supernatural Haunt
   Richard Medhurst: The Life Story, together with some account of the reputed death, of The Anti-Gravitational Screen.
   MOONSHINE: D.Webster dismisses Harry Kay's article, and thought his invention of the Youd-Nazis in bad taste...

Fantast May 1940 - cover by Harry TurnerTHE FANTAST Vol. 2 No. 1 May 1940
Cover Harry Turner (Quote: I feel I was not born for this world etc.. Originally dated Feb 1940 and Vol. 1 No8...)
   Editorial seeks to explain delay in publication... an interval of futility... with a promise to publish Fantast as long as resources permit.
   New serial starts: The Survivors, first part written by Fantacynic and then passed on to others to continue...
   Sam Youd, a youth of some eighteen years, wakes in a crumbling dust-covered bed, gazes out the window on to chaos and torn ruins reminiscent of Things to Come, on to the caved-in houses and deserted streets of Southampton. He realises that an article of DRSmith's he'd published in Fantast, which concluded with a nice touch of fantasy: the deplorable sf that was being dished up in 1940 might induce fans to fall asleep, like the Sleeping Beauty, to fall into suspended animation over a particularly dull narrative by Ed Hamilton. "Who knows", he said, "but that they might not sleep for a hundred years, and wake to find themselves famous?"
   Unhappily the subsequent Superb SF had contained a Hamilton epic - Worms of Eros. Youd recalled his effort to plough thru the last ten pages.... then oblivion. There had been a war on when he unceremoniously left the 20thC... had civilisation taken the advice of moralistic sf writers and wiped itself out?
   Visits library, but reading shelves empty...finds thin bundle of metallic sheets left prominently displayed. Struggles to translate symbols to find that 1940 conflict had spread, involving nation after nation, in the course of which a dreaded gas, Distego, proved a potent weapon, no country being immune. A small band of devotees were preparing these books to leave at focal points of humanity's largest cities., with details of Time Capsules (one below London Museum) from which might be learned the story of man.
   Finds car and fuel and decides to seek out Smith, the Cause of it all. Locates Smith and they drive to London, finishing up at 88 Grays Inn Road, welcomed by bill temple, with Eric Hopkins, Ted Carnell and Harry Kay lurking in background....
   Julian F. Parr: Hints on How to Write science Fiction
   Osmond Robb: The Messiah Complex Occasioned by Child of Power in Fantasy. Refers back to Odd John, The Hampdenshire Wonder, Star-Begotten... belief in the emergence of a new and better humanity. But man must find his own salvation from the tragic muddle into which his misguided ingenuity has pitchforked him.
Fantast Oct-Nov 1939 - cover by Harry Turner   LETTERS: Swisher - Did anyone point out that Turner forgot to finish his gentleman? Or should I have ignored the whole thing?
   E.F. Russell: Turner's cover especially took my eye - it looked like a gallant attempt to mimeograph Finlay, a difficult enough job at the best of times. I'd have given him eleven out of ten for this, but have to deduct two marks, bringing him down to nine because nothing could be more like hell than to be alone in the Universe - and Turner's lady is very much alone seeing the gentleman is really a fairy. Or has he a secret weapon?
   Doc Lowndes: After a weighty argument we (the Futurians) finally decided that the figures on the said cover are sisters, one of which is muchly inclined towards lesbianism - note the gleam in her downcast eyes. Cover gets 9; 'twould be 10 were Turner more explicit.
   Subject to the "constraints of the period"... Harry Turner wrote in the 1990s: "Anatomical omissions were made to placate the US postal authorities, who were apt to bar anything explicit!"
   John B. Michel: The Ilk of Ezra Pound (poem)

There was a marvellous summer weatherwise in Britain during 1940. Every day brought blue skies... And more bad news of the war. The inexorable push of the German army through Holland and Belgium during May, and subsequent evacuation of British & French forces from the Dunkirk beaches. The fall of France in June left the country keyed up for invasion.

The Battle of Britain started in earnest in July with air attacks on Channel shipping and coastal ports, then on RAF installations and mass daylight raids. The autumn brought a change of German tactics to large-scale night raids on London and other cities—a reminder of the Things to Come scenario, a grim predicition which we expected to materialise when war was first declared.

September 1940 ... Between government travel restrictions and the start of the Blitz in London, London fandom ceased to operate (The Flat, Red Bull and Druids' Hall were all destroyed during 1941).
   [Editor's note : The info about The Flat came from Rob Hansen of THEN, with whom my father corresponded about the early days of SF fandom in Britain. According to Peter Weston's Relapse No. 16 (Feb. 2010) pages 16 & 17, the Red Bull was bombed to bits in October 1941 but 88 Grays Inn Road, a.k.a. The Flat, was damaged but repaired, and it is still there in 2010. P.H.T.]

Letter 15 September: Stanley Davies now discharged from the army; suffering from shellshock and a fractured back after Dunkirk evacuation, with complete loss of memory... died August 1941.

URANIA Journal of the JAA, September/October 1940
"New Suns For Old: An Astronmical Fantasia (I)" by H.E. Turner.

October 1940 ... Mike Rosenblum started Futurian War Digest.

FIDO Vol. 1 No. 1 October 1940
ToW 12 appeared last week, number of pages cut. I, Spy by EFR.
   Bill Temple called up; rec'd papers to report to Colchester early last month - in the Signals.
   T. O'Conor Sloane died, aged 88, on 7 August. Ed of Amazing Stories for almost ten years.

FIDO Vol. 1 No. 2 November 1940
George Medhurst reports that the blitz has effectively put an end to fanactivity in London / Ted Carnell's Postal Review suspended as he's had call-up papers / Harold Gottliffe, ex-director of Leeds SFL, arrived in Capetown on the Hospital Ship, according to letter 3 Sept 1940.

14 November 1940
Coventry blitz, cathedral destroyed—comment by J.F.B. about coincidence of BRE Astounding with cover story of 'Coventry' appearing on news stands just after Blitz

FIDO Vol. 1 No. 3 December 1940
Wally Gillings appeared before a conscientious-objector tribunal at Fulham and was rejected / Gunner Bill Temple now settled in an obsolete printing works at Whalley, Lancs, and has visited Bert Lewis, ten miles away at Preston.
   This issue includes "introductory" The Gentlest Art from Doug Webster. ■

URANIA December 1940
"New Suns For Old" – An Astronomical Fantasia (Part II) by Harry Turner.

19 December 1940 ... (H.T.) Registered for service in the forces & had medical: expect to be called up in a month or so.

26 December 1940 ... (H.T.) Arrived home after Xmas visit to MFE in Glasgow... aftermath of Manchester blitz; delayed trains, Piccadilly buildings still ablaze, no trams or buses, walked home... Ardwick Barracks damaged, Ardwick cinema in ruins... land-mine crater outside Longford Place toll gates... Liverpool had the brunt of the raids in the North West, as a port.


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